Monday, July 22, 2019

Barriers to entry into foreign markets Essay Example for Free

Barriers to entry into foreign markets Essay It is completed near the end of your first year of entry into the country market. One must identify and prepare for Trade Events. Trade shows, international buyer programs, matchmaker trade delegations programs or a catalog exhibition program can lead to tremendous international opportunities . Methods of foreign market entry Methods of foreign market entry include exporting, licensing, joint venture and off-shore production. The method you choose will depend on a variety of factors including the nature of your particular product or service and the conditions for market penetration which exist in the foreign target market . Exporting can be accomplished by selling your product or service directly to a foreign firm, or indirectly, through the use of an export intermediary, such as a commissioned agent, an export management or trading company. International joint ventures can be a very effective means of market entry. Joint ventures overseas are often accomplished by licensing or off-shore production. Licensing involves a contractual agreement whereby you assign the rights to distribute or manufacture your product or service to a foreign company. Off-shore production requires either setting up your own facility or sub-contracting the manufacturing of your product to an assembly operator. Barriers to entry into foreign markets The main trade barriers to any foreign market include: Psychological barriers in foreign exchange markets Traders adjust their anchors in two ways. Some believe that exchange rates move toward (perceived) fundamentals, while others bet on a continuation of the current exchange rate trend. The behavior of the traders causes complex dynamics. Since the exchange rate tends to circle around its perceived fundamental value, the foreign exchange market is persistently misaligned. Central authorities have the opportunity to reduce such distortions by pushing the exchange rate to less biased anchors, but to achieve this; they have to break psychological barriers between anchors. High import tariffs inclusive of restrictions related to national security Tariffs are taxes that raise the price of a good when it is brought into another country. Tariffs and import quotas form the toughest barriers. Seventy percent of respondents say tariffs on goods and services are the most effective form of protectionism, followed closely by import quotas (68%). But this is by no means the whole story: 45% say that artificially undervalued exchange rates do much to boost the competitiveness of local firms, while 59% cite subsidized competitors as a major barrier. Many also noted the challenges of informal protectionism, such as local firms convincing government officials to block the approval of licenses. Quota systems in Japan: The tariff quota system charges a lower duty rate (primary duty rate) on imports of specific goods up to a certain quantity, but a higher duty rate (secondary duty rate) on quantities exceeding that volume. This system protects domestic producers of similar goods but also benefits consumers with the lowest tariff rates possible. The tariff quota volume for each allocation can be applied in one of two ways: according to the order in which the request was received, or according to prior allocations. Japan utilizes the prior allocation method. The tariff quota system does not restrict direct imports, since imports can be made without a tariff quota certificate, provided high duty is paid. Regarding footwear, quota allocations to individuals or companies are based on historical trade performance in the importation of footwear. Japan has allocated quota not to quota traders but to footwear importers, so business can take place as per footwear importers requirements. At the same time, new importers can acquire special quota for new importers. The Government of Japan implements this system in accordance with governmental regulation. Therefore, Japan believes that new importers have opportunities to obtain quotas under the current quota allocation system. Unfavorable foreign rules regulations Voluntary export restraints limit the quantity of a good brought into a country, but they are initiated by the country producing the good, not the country receiving the good. Federal, state, and local governments sometimes restrict entry into markets by requiring firms to have licenses. The Federal Communications Commission, for example, grants licenses to radio and television stations; there simply arent enough frequencies for an unlimited number of firms to broadcast in any area. For safety reasons, all nuclear power plants are licensed as well. Governments also bar entry by giving firms exclusive rights to a market. The U. S. Postal Service, for example, has an exclusive right to deliver first class mail. Firms are sometimes given exclusive rights to do things like operate gas stations along toll roads, produce electricity, or collect garbage in a city. Exclusive rights are granted if a government believes that there is room for only one firm in a market. Until the 1980s, the federal government also restricted entry into the airline, trucking, banking, and telecommunications industries. Many of the laws that restricted entry into these industries were put into place in the 1930s, when many people believed that large firms needed to be protected from cutthroat competitors. Many economists now believe that these laws did more harm than good. In 1938, for example, the Civil Aeronautics Board, or CAB, was established to regulate the airline industry for interstate flights. For the forty years that it existed, it didnt allow a single new firm to enter the market, although it received over 150 applications for routes. In 1978, despite protests from the airlines, President Carter ordered the deregulation of the industry and the phasing out of the CAB. Within five years, 14 new firms entered the industry. Many experts believe that airline fares after deregulation were well below what they would have been had regulation continued. For instance, take China as an example. China’s government has set policies that are posing great challenges for foreign investors. China’s regulatory framework for cross-border remains a complex and incomplete patchwork of laws, regulations and policy decisions made by various ministries and government agencies. A lack of transparency, coupled with low standards of corporate transparency and disclosure, makes it difficult for potential investors to carry out due diligence to accepted international standards. Valuing the potential liabilities of a firm is especially difficult. At the same time, the Chinese government continues to close off so-called â€Å"strategic assets† to cross-border without specifying which sectors are defined as strategic, or why. To address these issues and remove other obstacles to cross-border deals, it is recommended for China to: †¢ Streamline the approval process for cross-border and make it more transparent; †¢ Put in place a sound competition framework; †¢ Further open its capital markets to foreign investors; †¢ Encourage its firms to increase corporate transparency and provide more up to date and accurate financial information to make it easier to value a potential acquisition, especially regarding a firm’s liabilities; Relax foreign ownership restrictions. In particular, revise existing catalogues that list the type of firms that can or cannot be acquired by foreign investors. The report also recommends that China pilot these recommendations in the North-East of the country before rolling them out nationwide. This region, China’s historical industrial heartland, has a high concentration of state-owned firms in need of restructuring and technological upgrading, as well as high unemployment and low productivity. Cross-border could help rejuvenate the region’s economy. Free Trade Policy Policy in which a government does not discriminate against imports or interfere with exports. A free-trade policy does not necessarily imply that the government abandons all control and taxation of imports and exports, but rather that it refrains from actions specifically designed to hinder international trade, such as tariff barriers, currency restrictions, and import quotas. The theoretical case for free trade is based on Adam Smiths argument that the division of labor among countries leads to specialization, greater efficiency, and higher aggregate production. The way to foster such a division of labor, Smith believed, is to allow nations to make and sell whatever products can compete successfully in an international market.

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